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What is reverse osmosis and how is it best used?

In wastewater treatment, reverse osmosis is a water purification technology that, like ultrafiltration, uses a semipermeable membrane to remove larger particles from drinking water. But in reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter.
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In primary treatment, what are the pH process controls for treating wastewater?

The measure of free hydrogen activity in water -- called “pH” for “potential for hydrogen” -- is undoubtedly the most important and most-used wastewater treatment measure. Dependence on pH as a measure relevant to water quality and its control occurs in practically every phase of water supply and wastewater treatment, including acid-base neutralization, water softening, precipitation, coagulation, disinfection and corrosion control.
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Activated-sludge troubleshooting guidelines

Someone recently asked, “What are some troubleshooting guidelines or procedures for overall process control of activated sludge?”
Someone recently asked, “What are some troubleshooting guidelines or procedures for overall process control of activated sludge?”
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Procedures for overall process control of activated sludge

To control activated sludge, you need to “have a handle” either on aeration, sludge-wasting or return-sludge flow. Aeration-rate adjustment is probably the simplest way to go, says Wastewater Dan. But he briefly reviews all three methods in today’s blog.
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How sludge settles is a key performance indicator

Someone recently asked, 'What are some procedures for measuring settle-ability of activated sludge?'
Collecting samples, use of equipment for simulating settle-ability and the interpretation of results are all part of measuring activated-sludge settle-ability.
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